The effect of this would have been to extend the tables to at least one million places, without any advantage. It was therefore determined to relegate the whole of those form and other quahficationf to a separate table, and to use its numbers for the subdivision of any topic as required. A complete list of such qualifying factors was therefore drawn up and separately indexed, and each category or subdivisional word was numbered after a point, so that a distinction should be made between any main niunber, original or additional, and the number which quahfied it.
Similarly, when applied to a subdivision of Botany, the same method is adopted of adding numbers from the Categorical Tables, as : — E Orchids, General E A large number of the items in these Tables will not apply all round, and in the case of forms, standpoints and other categories affecting Biology, Churches, Languages, etc.
For instance, in the case of a collection of books on the English or any other language, the subdivision would be effected by means of the Categorical Tables, as follows : — M English Ciurent Language, General. Syy — Grammar M Other examples will be given when the application of the Classification is explained class by class, so that it is needless to multiply cases here.
Enough has been described to make it clear how this separate table of categories can be applied to the subjects of the main classification. Applioation of the System : General. As already explained, this is effected by providing a certain order of classes, in logical order, with divisions and subdivisions ; means of intercalating new subjects ; and a method of subdividing subjects into forms and other categories by means of a separate table of nimibers.
All through this scheme an effort has been made to place each subject as near as possible to the science on which it is based. Where a subject assumes great complexity because of the number of sciences which enter into it, an endeavour has been made to place it in juxtaposition to the predominant science on which it is chiefly based.
Agriculture is, therefore, put after Botany and Zoology ; the mechanical side of the subject being considered subordinate.
Practical use has been considered all through the scheme, and it has been sought to obtain this by dispensing with conventions, distinctions and groupings, which are arbitrary rather than scientific. The tendency in many classification schemes is to consider the archaeology of a subject as a new science, and thus it has become a convention in many quarters that knowledge must be regulated by museum standards.
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It is this convention more than anything else which is responsible for the current belief that there can be no relationship between old coins and new ; armour and the art of war ; gems and mineralogy ; harpsichords and music, and so on, ad infinitum. The collector has, by persistent work in special grooves, succeeded in establishing the idea that mere separation in time is sufficient to destroy any close relationship between identical things. It will be found that any kind of sentimental regard for conventional grouping is given but a small place in this scheme, not only because it is unscientific, but necessity makes it imperative in a classification, that only one place shall exist for one subject.
Composite Books or Subjects.
In many cases special numbers are provided for composite books on subjects like Electricity and Magnetism, Orkney and Shetland, and so forth, but it was not possible to find places for the many possible combinations of subjects. Composite books should be marked in such a manner as to indicate clearly that they are on more than one subject. The most convenient place for such composites would be at the end of the subject, and, of course, the catalogue would have to indicate the existence of the second or third subjects.
It is not advisable to go beyond combinations of three in marking. Should a book treat of three or more subjects in the same class, it is best to place it at the general head ; as, for example, a book on Light, Sound and Heat at Physics. Occasionally books are met with which, without being encyclopaedic, nevertheless treat of three, four or more remotely related subjects.
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In such cases it is best to classify them according to the predominant subject matter. Locality versus Subject. A History of York Minster may be put under Cathedrals, Architecture or York, and doubtless other heads in any classification, and the question which must decide its ultimate placing is " Where will it be most constantly useful? Grant's Edinburgh Castle might be niunbered BV at " Fortifications," subdivision " Castles," where it would be lost to the person interested in Edinburgh and absolutely useless to the soldier.
The majority of classifiers woidd doubtless number it V This holds good in the case of nearly all local monuments, land- marks and buildings, and for that reason it is one of the rules of this classification scheme that local numbers should be given to the following subjects : — Local Ecclesiastical Buildings, Abbeys, etc. In several cases throughout this scheme, as at London and Paris, this local treatment has been adopted in the tables by assigning special numbers to local buildings, etc. This might not seem to apply to works like local floras and so forth, but, as a matter of fact, books on local botany, geology, zoology, etc.
See Section The limitation adopted for local books will be found quite workable and practical in actual use, and it might be pointed out that in all necessary cases the catalogue will index under any heading what must be omitted by the classification. It is hardly necessary to point out that most subjects have a national or local character, and that a classification on such lines is quite practicable, though it would be almost useless, save as regards such subjects as are especially assigned to locality above.
Application of the System by Classes.
senrei-exorcism.com/images/mspy/how-to-put-a-location-device-on-a-phone-samsunggalaxy-a5.php Whatever categorical or other numbers may afterwards be applied, the one place number is the Index number, unless, on turning it up, there appears to be a comprehensive entry including many numbers, in which case the Tables themselves must be consulted. Thus, the number of Coffee in the Index is E, and at this place must be collected everything relating to coffee, regardless of standpoint, form or other qualification. E may be qualified in the usual way by means of the Categorical Tables, but it must not be put under such headings as Tropical Agriculture, Beverages, Crops, Foods, Drugs, Ethics, Bibliography, Customs, or any other general head.
In cases where inclusive numbers are given in the index, hke Crops, I, it is necessary to consult the entry in the Classification Tables in order to ascertain the range of the subject. With these general remarks, the application of the system to individual classes may now be considered. A is a place for uniformly edited and bound editions of the collected works of authors like Goethe, Scott, Carlyle, De Quincey, Hugo, Voltaire and other miscellaneous writers, whose works it may be undesirable to distribute.
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A is intended for libraries of general writers, and Aooi for all kinds of general collections other than those on special subjects. See also Section It must always be remembered that every division in this classification is a general one to begin with, and that special applications must go with the specific subject, to which the categorical number can be added. A and onwards are the numbers for the pictorial side of subjects in general, but illustrations of specific subjects must go with the subject and have the categorical number.
When the literary matter connected with the works of an artist is greatly in excess of the pictorial, it is best in many cases to transfer the work to Biography. Without multiplying numbers by providing separate places for every possible combination, it is difficult to make the various methods and mediums clear. A is a place for collecting Scientific Surveys and Travels, if it is considered unsuitable to place them in the Historical and Geographical division.
Much will depend upon their general trend. Some books of scientific travel are a compound of geology, meteorology, philology, ethnology, botany, zoology, adventure, history, topography and sociology, which are most useful when placed at their local numbers. Others are largely description and sport, while some are restricted to the study of particular aspects of animal or vegetable life. The proper place for such books must be decided by the classifier, but as a genersJ rule, all purely scientific siu-veys of a general kind should go at A, while all others should get local numbers. B-C-D Physical Science.
For example, C is the place specially reserved for the Telescope, but a Theodolite, without a numbered place, would have to be numbered as D There is no special number assigned for Library or Railway Indicators, although there is a place for Indicators in general B , consequently they would require to be numbered M The numbers from Biio to B are for Machinery in general, and not for special engines, which have special places. B Stationary Engines may be driven by steam, electricity, wind, water, gas, oil or other power, and it would, therefore, be incorrect to put a book on the Stationary SUam Engine here.
The most constant place would be C, where a number is provided for the purpose. On the other hand, the best constant place for an electric lift would probably be B, as in this case the motive power is less important than the purpose of the mechanism. This rule applies to every kind of special building, and it will be seen that the numbers B to B are reserved for general works on Architecture, on construction, details, history, etc.
For practical purposes it is probably most useful to number by instrument and divide by form. Combinations of more than two instruments must be arranged at C, etc. Poetry and Music. In all other cases, however full the poetical text may be, if accompaniments are given, number as Music, viz.
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Operas, oratorios, etc. References or entries relating to poets and librettists must be furnished in catalogues. Monographs and books on Rocks, Minerals, Chemical Compounds, etc. E-I Biological Science. The extraordinary mmiber of processes, functions, organs, etc. Places have been found for all the chief departments of human biology, as distinguished from Com- parative Biology, but in cases where it is necessary, combination of nimibers must be resorted to for minute classification. Sin, Punishments, etc. Here again, provision has been made in the Categorical Tables for subdividing, say.
Buddhistic Eschatology from Christian Eschatology.
The difference is best shown by examples : — J Hones. Liturgies of the World General K It is possible, by using these church plus categorical numbers, to disentangle the vast literature of religion, which in some libraries is hidden away under one number! M Language, Literature, Bibliography. Dietionaries of more than one language are to be arranged under the language which is not that of the nationality of the library, i,e,, Greek- English, French-English, English-German dictionaries would, in an English library, be numbered at M In a German library the same local treatment would ocoir.
In the case of German-Latin, French-Greek, Italian- Russian and other combinations, arrange in an English library under the name of the language which comes first in alphabetical order. Languages and Literatures go together.